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unit 6
36 Instructional days (36 hours)

Spelling Alternatives and Tricky Spellings for Vowel and Consonant Sounds


The Skills strand of the Core Knowledge Language Arts program teaches students the decoding skills needed for (future) independent reading. Each Skills lesson begins with a warm-up, reviewing previously taught content in reading, writing, and/or grammar.

By the end of this unit, students will be able to:

1. Ask and answer questions (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how), orally or in writing, requiring literal recall and understanding of the details and/or facts of a fictionr or nonfiction/informational text read independently;
2. Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph nonfiction/informational text read independently, as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text;
3. Describe the connection between a series of historical text in a nonfiction/informational text read aloud or independently;
4. Determin the meaning of unknown words and phrases in nonfiction/informational text read aloud or independently;
5. Identify and use text features (e.g., captions, bold print, suheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a nonfiction/informational text;
6. Identify the main purpose of a nonfiction/informational text read independently, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe;
7. Interpret information from diagrams, charts, timelines, graphs, or other organizers associated with nonfiction/informational text read aloud or independently, and explain how these graphics clarify the meaning of the text;
8. Describe how reasons or facts support specific points the author makes in a nonfiction text read aloud or independently;
9. Read independently and demonstrate understanding of nonfiction/informational text in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range;
10. Listen to and demonstrate understanding of nonfiction/informational read-alouds of appropriate complexity for grades 2–4;
11. Use knowledge of the letter-sound correspondences that have been taught to distinguish and correcly read long and short one-syllable words: 'a' > /a/; 'e' > /e/; 'i' > /i/; 'o' > /o/; 'u' > /u/; 'a_e' > /ae/; 'ee' > /ee/; 'i_e' > /ie/; 'o_e' > /oe/; 'u_e' > /ue/;
12. Read and write words spelled with the following vowel teams: long vowel sounds: ‘ai’, ‘ay’ > /ae/; ‘ea’, ‘ey’, ‘ee’ > /ee/; ‘oa’, ‘oe’, ‘ow’ > /oe/; ‘ie’, ‘igh’ > /ie/; short vowel
sounds: ‘ou’, ‘o_e’ > /u/; ‘ea’ > /e/; other vowel sounds: ‘oi’, ‘oy’ > /oi/; ‘aw’, ‘au’, ‘augh’, ‘al’ > /aw/; ‘ow’ > /ou/; r-controlled
vowel sounds: ‘er’ > /er/; ‘or’ > /or/; ‘ar’ > /ar/;
13. Decode two-syllable words with any combination of the following syllable types: closed syllables, magic –e syllables, vowel digraph syllables, r-controlled syllables, open syllables, and consonant –le syllables;
14. Read and write words with the following letter-sound correspondences: ‘a’ as /a/ (hat), /ae/ (paper), /ə/ (about), or /o/ (water); ‘i’ as /i/ (hit), /ie/ (item), or /ee/ (ski); ‘o’ as /o/ (hop), /oe/ (open), or /u/ (son); ‘e’ as /e/ (pet), /ee/ (me), or /ə/ (debate); ‘u’ as /ue/ (unit) or /u/ (but); ‘y’ as /y/ (yes), /ie/ (try), /i/ (myth), or /ee/ (funny); ‘ir’ (bird), ‘ur’ (hurt), or ‘er’ as /er/ (her); ‘ar’ > /ar/ (car) or /or/ (war); ‘al’ > /ə/ + /l/ (animal) or 'aw' (wall); ‘il’ > /ə/ + /l/ (pencil); ‘ul’ > /ə/ + /l/ (awful); ‘el’ >  ə/ + /l/ (travel), ‘le’ > /ə/ + /l/ (apple); ‘tion’ > /sh/ + /ə/ + /n/; ‘ph’ > /f/ (phone); ‘ch’ > /k/ (school); ‘al’ > /aw/ (wall);
15. Read the following Tricky Words: Great Britain, Europe, native, Americans, war, signature, imagine, soldier, Washington, iron, special, shoe, Fort McHenry, early, whose, broad, bomb, Andrew, new;
16. Read decodable text that incorporates the letter-sound correspondences taught with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension;
17. Read and understand decodable text that incorporates the letter-sound correspondences taught with purpose and understanding;
18. Read decodable text that incorporates the letter-sound correspondences taught with increased accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
19. Use phonics skills in conjunction with context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary;
20. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification;
21. Use both regular and irregular past-, present-, and future-tense verbs orally and in own writing;
22. Use adjectives appropriately orally and in own writing;
23. Use adverbs appropriately orally and in own writing;
24. Use and expand complete simple and compound sentences orally and in own writing;
25. Spell and write one-syllable words using the letter-sound correspondences taught in grade 2, using the Individual Code Chart as needed; and
20. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.


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Bilingual Language Progressions

These resources, developed by the New York State Education Department, provide standard-level scaffolding suggestions for English Language Learners (ELLs) to help them meet grade-level demands. Each resource contains scaffolds at multiple levels of language acquisition and describes the linguistic demands of the standards to help ELA teachers as well as ESL/bilingual teachers scaffold content for their English learning students.


From of the New York State Education Department. Grade 2 ELA Skills Unit 6. Available from; accessed 2015-05-29.
This work is based on an original work of the Core Knowledge® Foundation made available through licensing under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This does not in any way imply that the Core Knowledge Foundation endorses this work.

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